A solar cell (also called a photovoltaic cell) is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical characteristics—e.g. current, voltage, or resistance—vary when exposed to light.
Cells can be described as photovoltaic even when the light source is not necessarily sunlight (lamplight, artificial light, etc.) Photovoltaic cells are used as a photodetector (for example infrared detectors), detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range, or measuring light intensity.
The operation of a photovoltaic (PV) cell requires 3 basic attributes:
Polycrystalline cell has over take monocrystalline cell due to its easier production process.
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